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导读:Comparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & English广东 xxxx 大学 商务英语本科毕业论文( 2011 届 )论文题目 Comparative Study of Thinking Way between(英文)Chinese & English论文题目中西方思维方式比较(中

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Comparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & English广东 xxxx 大学 商务英语本科毕业论文( 2011 届 )论文题目 Comparative Study of Thinking Way between(英文)Chinese & English论文题目中西方思维方式比较(中文)学院 班级继教(公开)学院 自考专业商务英语准考证号作者姓名 指导老师 完稿时间 成绩

Comparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & EnglishComparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & EnglishHe ChutingAbstract: Different cultural background, birth way of thinking and different cultural characteristics. The characteristics of each Chinese and Westerners in the way of thinking, the difference is mainly reflected in three aspects: fuzziness and accuracy; understanding The intuition and logic; organic and mechanistic. In traditional western culture is different, is the causes of difference in thinking patterns. Key words: The mode of thinking; difference; in the west; cultural differences中西方思维方式比较***摘要: 不同的文化背景,孕育不同的思维方式和文化特征。

中国人和西方人在思维方式 上各有特色,其差异主要反映在三个方面:模糊性与精确性;悟性 直觉与理性逻辑;有机性与机械性。

中西方传统文化的不同,是导致中西方思维方式 不同的重要根源。

关键词:思维方式;差异;中西方;文化差异

Comparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & EnglishContents1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 2 2. Chinese and western ways of thinking differences mainly displays ................................. 2 2.1 Fuzziness and precision ............................................................................................... 2 2.2 Understanding the intuition and logic .......................................................................... 3 2.3 Organic and mechanistic .............................................................................................. 4 3. Cultural factors .................................................................................................................. 5 3.1 Cultural development ................................................................................................... 5 3.2 The traditional cultural orientation and cultural spirit ................................................. 6 3.3 Text symbols ................................................................................................................ 6 4. Duality ............................................................................................................................... 7 5. Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 7 Works Cited ........................................................................................................................... 8

Comparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & EnglishComparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & EnglishGuangdong University of Foreign Studies 2011 He Chuting Tutor: Professor YYY1. Introduction Thinking is the essence of the human brain to objective things attribute or an indirect and general reflection of the regularity. Thinking is very important in human activities. It is through thinking, people can understand nature, society, thus to adapt to the environment, the environment, promote social development. To this, cahill said: "symbolic thinking and symbolic behavior is the most iconic features in human life, and the full development of human culture are dependent on these conditions, it is indisputable." A person with age, affected by the social and economic environment and the national culture of beneficence, its way of thinking will gradually forming stability. A way of thinking but form, people would in this way he used to thinking, and to guide its behavior. So, to adapt to the development of The Times, emancipate the mind, renew the idea, change everyday, not conducive to the development of the society behavior patterns and involves the recasting of deeper thinking. Therefore, the study of Chinese and western ways of thinking, to understand their own strengths and weaknesses, to meet the challenge of the + & century to build a new era of Chinese way of thinking, has positive practical significance. 2. Chinese and western ways of thinking differences mainly displays Chinese and Westerners because of their social and historical and cultural traditions of different, formed a unique mode of thinking. The differences between Chinese and Western thinking mode is mainly manifested in the following aspects: 2.1 Fuzziness and precision Characteristics of the most attract sb.'s attention Chinese traditional way of thinking, is fuzzy, the accuracy is obviously different from the traditional western thinking and pursuit. First of all, from the language point of view. Chinese adjective comparative verb does not exist, nor "tense", "plural form", its exact meaning only through the specific language environment Environment, language in front and back to grasp. The Chinese people's understanding of things, often rarely like western first of its definition and the definition of strict, is clear about its connotation and extension, and then analysis, judgment, reasoning and conclusion. This paper describes the abstract problem in the ancient academic writings, especially. For example, Confucius attaches great importance to "benevolence", he was in the "Analects of Confucius" dozens of times spoke of "benevolence", but never on "Ren"

Comparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & Englishmeans to make any clear explanation and definition. Today, we can only through the "benevolence" of the context, to infer the basic connotation of "benevolence". The other category in the history of Chinese philosophy, such as "Li" and "Qi" and "road", "heart" and so on also is so, because people can give the previous relative freedom category with a new meaning, without having to create another other terms to express their ideas, and the only book only holy tradition causes the Chinese classics developed, "I note six, six canons I", note by the method to express the author's different thoughts. Fuzzy thinking reflected in historiography, although historians of emperors, political and economic institutions to record very clearly, but the quantity of land, grain output, fiscal revenue and so on recorded very little, but very vague, modern people have to treat these problems as the research subject to textual research. The fuzzy thinking though when Generations of Chinese people has weakened, but in many areas there are still more or less. Such as the humanities and social science books, papers and textbooks side heavy demonstration analysis of minimal amounts of. Even if the logarithmic quantization requirements textbook economics books, very strong, the analysis of quantity are not many, there are few like teaching western economics treatise, that the speech was full of chart, curve, function and quantity formula. The Chinese diet culture developed, but in China every kitchen almost can not find western kitchen engraved with the scale measuring cup, standard spoon. Chinese cooking is all a matter of experience and feeling, not a fixed pattern, also is the "fish flavored shredded pork" restaurants have the taste, not like the "McDonald's", the whole world "McDonald's" chain stores have a taste. 2.2 Understanding the intuition and logic China traditional thinking pays attention to experience understanding of intuitive thinking, western traditional thinking seriously of logical thinking. Lin Yutang said: "the minds of the Chinese people are shy to abstract words, like women's language. The Chinese way of thinking is a comprehensive and concrete." "Chinese people largely rely on intuition to uncover the nature Cleverly pointed out that the theme of this article called "touch" touch on lightly, known as "superficial". Chinese adjectives, idioms much more special, almost every word has an image, and abstract nouns and less special, so that the beautiful, rich artistic conception of Chinese poetry, prose translation into a western language often lose the original flavor; western science papers translated into Chinese, and it is difficult to find similar words expression modern, so that some translators have to a lot of creating some new words, to adapt to the western scientific work translation. Chinese traditional thinking heavy introspective insight heavy analogical reasoning, intuition to a truth first, then a variety of specific comparison and implication image elaboration. As a demonstration of "Yin" and "Yang" widespread, heaven and earth, sun and moon, men and women cite, the monarch and his subjects, Qi and blood and so on to demonstrate. In this way, may produce many talented Lenovo, but the lack of strict and scientific. Western experimental verification of induction and deduction. Einstein put the western scientific thought attributed to the formal logic and experiment. The concept of formal logic to determine, experiment makes concept with mathematical quantitative formula, and one end of right and wrong judgment standard. So we can understand the observed, recorded in

Comparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & Englishancient China has the world's most early, the most abundant Halley's comet, but calculate cycle, trajectory Halley's comet instead is Harley and Newton. 2.3 Organic and mechanistic Another important difference between Chinese and Western thinking mode is the traditional thinking, China holistic, organic, dialectic is prominent, while western traditional thinking focus on concrete, mechanical, metaphysics was. Chinese problem, want to do things, more comprehensive, seldom go to extremes. That early in the spring and Autumn Period me, poor, strong or weak, weal and woe, rigid and so on opposites are not immutable and frozen, they in certain conditions, will be in the opposite direction transformation, in the "moral" proposed by "Sweet are the uses of adversity, the dialectical thought of the Fu Fu Xi disaster" $&%. Confucius very Recommended article, think "Shun Shun their knowledge and... Deacon at both ends, with the people, Whose this thought Shun almost ".He advocated, "a pleasure which would cost one nothing, work without complaining, and not greed, confident but not arrogant, yet not fierce." Also to be bland and emotionally.The physical situation. The doctrine of the mean thought Confucius enhanced organic China traditional thinking and dialectical. China traditional thinking embodied in Chinese medicine theory especially sufficient. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that any disease is not an isolated phenomenon. Eye disease may reflect Kidney problems, restless, is hot tempered. Therefore, it's not like western medicine as no overall plan for a fundamental transformation, not effect a permanent cure claims at the end of May, the headache medicine foot, stomach pain with silver needle pierced ears. The Chinese even deny a thing or criticize a person, often is the first in a positive praise, "but then......" Turning you are in my heart. In traditional western thinking enjoyed taking things apart, quantitative analysis, empirical testing, and even the human organs as separate parts research, so that on the one hand to promote the development of human anatomy, on the other hand, we can draw some absurd conclusion. As Hobbes put the people as "the structure of the clock", the heart is the mainspring, nerve is gossamer, joint is gear. Latin American Terry is that "people are the machine", and that the monkey can be trained adult. Because the differences between human and monkey is a few more gear, spring. Westerners to evaluation of the thing, often the sake of discussion, black and white, color emotion very prominent, balancing rarely like Chinese, middle. This is caused by different thinking tradition. The differences between Chinese and Western thinking mode, but there are a lot of the above aspects, such as Chinese thinking only book Wei Shengwei serious tendency, higher provisions on some books, Saint speaking, did not dare to defy. The past reading people become an author must reference the sage words, now many scholars writing paper is like according to the individual's needs, quote some mentors, leaders, as their argument. In contrast, Westerners think reality only really obvious color only method, practical, scientific, abide by the law, dare and authority controversy. Point to again Chinese traditional thinking is the main human relations, emphasis on inward thinking; while pointing to the western traditional thinking is mainly the relationship between man and nature, emphasis on outward thinking.

Comparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & English3. Cultural factors From the viewpoint of epistemology, thinking is the function of human brain, is the human brain reflects the objective world process. Thinking is not only a natural product of highly developed, but also is the crystallization of human social development, and constantly improve the level of understanding. The differences between Chinese and Western thinking mode, is derived from Chinese and Westerners in the brain of the physiological function of different, but because China and the western economic development, social psychology, national characteristics, customs, values, religious beliefs, lifestyle and social factors caused by the different cultural factors, which is an important source of difference the Western way of thinking. 3.1 Cultural development In the pre Qin Period -- the cultural origin and foundation of the ancient China stage, Chinese way of thinking was diverse, pluralistic development, not only have an intuitive, dialectical thinking, and a rational, logical thinking; both fuzzy thinking, understanding, and precise, positive thinking. Confucianism and Taoism, yin and Yang home longer than vague, intuitive dialectical thinking, me, Confucius put forward many reflect this thinking category, proposition. Mohist and masters is paid special attention to the precise, logical thinking, Hui Shi, Gongsun Long established the propositions of logic, many analytical concept relations. In pre Qin Dynasty to Wei Jin period, due to the existence of various ways of thinking, so that philosophy, historiography, literature, natural science, science and technology have been developing very fast. After Wei and Jin Dynasties, with the Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism three cultures complementary to become mainstream, influence Chinese culture, Mohism and artists began to decline, the precise logical thinking gradually let the intuitionistic fuzzy in Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, three have paid attention to the dialectical thinking. Since then, the dialectical thinking has been occupying the intuitionistic fuzzy. The dominant position Chinese traditional mode of thinking, until modern times western Dongjin began to change. Therefore, from a certain sense, the history of the development of thinking Chinese is intuitive, dialectical thinking history. The West from its cultural origin and foundation stage -- the period of ancient Greece, precise logical thinking is a dominant position. The ancient Greek thinkers generally has the tendency of pursuing axiomatic system strict in philosophical speculation in the. From Telles until the Socrates, Platon, almost all the philosophers have worked tirelessly to explore the problem of inference rules of logic, until the cause of Aristotle established a deductive reasoning as the core of the formal logical system. The deductive method of Aristotle is the further development of Leibniz, Descartes, Kant, forming method of apriorism and axiomatic system. Bacon in the induction by simple enumeration based Aristotle put forward "induction meter method", laid the foundation of the inductive method, and later developed by Muller as "summed up five methods", formed the method system of empiricism and positivism. Therefore, from a certain sense, the history of the development of Western thought, is precisely the rational logic history.

Comparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & English3.2 The traditional cultural orientation and cultural spirit Cultural orientation and cultural spirit affects the ways of thinking, ways of thinking and strengthen the cultural orientation and cultural spirit. Chinese traditional culture on the continental river of the patriarchal hierarchy and smallholder economy, this culture reflects the intrinsic stability requirements of agricultural production methods and interior environment, the formation of ethics first, light weight groups, individual culture value orientation and the pursuit of cultural spirit of moderation and harmony. Not only emphasizes the personal cultivation and perfection of personality, pay attention to the harmony between the person and person's relations, but also to extend it to a harmonious relationship between man and society, man and the universe, so there is keeping magnanimous -- self harmony of virtue, and -- between the person and person's harmony, peace and prosperity -- and the harmony between human and society, harmony between man and nature -- between the human and the natural harmony. In order to achieve the harmony and stability, must not partial positive, realistic, emphasizes moderation, comply with the code of ethics. In order to adapt this kind of cultural orientation and cultural spirit, the main energy people inevitably cast to human relations, social, political, way of thinking is inevitable with fuzzy, intuitive, dialectical relations, strong color. Western culture originated in ancient Greece and the island city-state democracy and civilian commercial economy, special geographical environment and economic form, lead to the ancient Greek nation in pursuit of truth, love adventure, independent, free spirit, later Hebrew beyond the spirit, the people of Rome to conquer the spirit into, thus forming the West rationalism, heavy scientific and cultural value orientation and seek for the cultural spirit of struggle, personality. This tendency to put people's effort to explore the truth, nature study, continue to struggle with nature, conquer nature, in the thought must pay attention to quantitative, empirical, rational, logical, forming an accurate, rational, machinery, nature's way of thinking. 3.3 Text symbols America existential sociologist E Thierry A Kian proposed the theory of a kind of culture, that culture is a symbol system is a multilayer, different cultures are different symbol systems, different cultures have different feelings to the text, symbols of different. This theory to our analysis of differences between Chinese and Western ways of thinking, no doubt has the enlightenment function. People's thinking is with the help of words to achieve, exchange of ideas is expressed through words, language symbols of different national culture will certainly affect the way of thinking, the way in which the difference also. The western language is alphabetic writing, with a linear, deterministic, logic, system structural characteristics, rational, and the lack of emotion; China text belongs to the hieroglyphics, with art, uncertainty, emotion, image characteristics, emotional, and irrational. Therefore, the Western text and accurate understanding, rational thinking, abstract logic, metaphysics has a natural affinity, while the Chinese language is beneficial to the fuzzy understanding, intuitive thinking, image thinking, dialectical thinking. Visible in the western language symbols of different, but also constitute one of the reasons for the differences in Chinese and Western thinking mode.

Comparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & English4. Duality Whether it is China traditional mode of thinking, or western traditional thinking mode, they are the product of the specific social historical and cultural development, has the duality. Such as China traditional thinking mode as an example, on the positive side, it is easy to make people on the world, forming a whole, system and organic conception of things, easy on the world, to grasp the overall. It is in the fuzzy, intuition, dialectical way of thinking is generated based on the in the world and become an independent school of Chinese medicine, qigong, health science, but also the future of the new science may thus germination. From the negative aspect, Chinese traditional thinking way, the lack of scientific spirit, not easy to establish the understanding of the world of things, reasonable science. Obviously not developed modern science and this is closely linked Chinese. Therefore, ideally complement each other in the Western way of thinking, the only way to promote human Scentury the higher form of scientific development. As mankind enters the Scentury, Entering the era of knowledge economy, we should not only learn the western scientific knowledge, cultivating scientific spirit, absorb reasonable elements of western traditional thinking mode, and should understand the China traditional culture, inherit and carry forward the excellent heritage of traditional culture, absorb the essence China traditional thinking mode, add new content, the construction of modern Chinese the way of thinking, to adapt to the need of the development of the new era. . 5. Conclusion The way of thinking on the cultural exchanges between the East and West will play an important role in promoting. Because of the differences of thinking mode, when Chinese and Westerners look at the same problem that there are many different. So how do seek common ground while reserving differences, the two sides of effective communication seems extremely important. Only aware of this difference, and to guide this behavior, we can make more effective contacts between the two sides.

Comparative Study of Thinking Way between Chinese & EnglishWorks CitedXie Yaping, "the differences between Chinese and Western culture and way of thinking", Journal of Tianjin, 2003 adult institutions of higher learning, Yu Lei, Jia Qin: "system of difference between western ways of thinking on culture embodied in" "difference" in the Western way of thinkingPan Wenjin: "cultural differences between East and West from the way of thinking" Howard, George S. Basic Research Methods in the Social Sciences. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1985. Wood, Nancy. V. Strategies for College Reading and Thinking. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.

 
 

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