商务英语专业毕业论文范文

 时间:2013-02-05 02:55:53 贡献者:西点乔丹

导读:AbstractWith the establishment of student-centered teaching concept, independent learning has been a hot topic in the field of educational psychology research at home and abroad. However in China, owing to the impact of traditional teaching pattern,

英语专业论文_英语论文范文_英语毕业论文
英语专业论文_英语论文范文_英语毕业论文

AbstractWith the establishment of student-centered teaching concept, independent learning has been a hot topic in the field of educational psychology research at home and abroad. However in China, owing to the impact of traditional teaching pattern, teacher neglect learners’ status as the main role in language learning. In modern English teaching concept, students’ independent learning competence is the key to improving English level. education. The investigation shows that the students’independent learning ability is at medium level. In detail, most of students’ instrumental motivation is stronger than integrative motivation; they hold positive learning belief but seldom know the teacher’s aims and requirements; they have clear learning goals and plans but seldom carry them out; In addition, they lack knowledge of learning strategies, self-monitoring and self-assessment, and they make little use of learning resources. The author tries to analyze the possible reasons and proposes some appropriate suggestions to promote learners’ autonomy. Key words: English major freshmen; Independent learning; Improve English Level.

摘要随着以学生为中心的教学观的确立,自主学习成为国内外教育心理学研究的热点。

然 而,由于受到传统教学模式的影响,忽视了学习者作为学习主体的地位的现象。

在现代英 语教育教学理念中, 英语专业学生的自主学习能力是提高自身英语总体水平的关键。

通过 调查发现英语专业新生的自主学习能力处于中等水平, 大多数新生学习英语的外部动机强 于内在动机;学习观念积极,但是对教师的教学目的与要求不是很了解;新生有明确的学 习目标和计划,但是很少付出实际行动;学习策略匮乏,自我监控和评估的能力不足,不 能充分利用学习资源。

针对以上情况, 分析其原因并给出建议以提高学习者的自主学习能 力。

关键词:英语专业新生;自主学习;提高英语水平

Chapter One: Introduction1.1 The structure of the thesisThis paper is composed of six chapters. Chapter one is an introduction to the situation of independent learning, its necessity and significance. Chapter two is the literature review related to independent learning, including some concepts and previous studies at home and abroad. Chapter three concentrates on the concerning factors on independent learning. Chapter four is the survey design, which describes the subjects and questions of the survey. Chapter five reports the result of survey and analyzes the data. Based on the results of survey, factors affecting independent learning and reasons are discussed in detail. Chapter six is the conclusion, which discusses the implication of survey, with hopes to promote independent competence, then some suggestions on teachers’ roles, learners’ roles and teaching environment are put forward.

1.2 Need for independent learningIn recent years, with the development of domestic and international economic, the demands for foreign talents increase gradually in China. Second language learning has been a heated point for educators at home and abroad. Since 1980s, Holec put forward the concept of independent learning, which has been a popular discussion in the West. Compared with the traditional teaching —teacher-centered teaching, which teachers pay more attention to how they teach rather than how students learn, the contemporary English teaching lays emphasis on the main role of learners. In China, most of teachers adopt traditional teaching methods in foreign language teaching, they devote too much time and attention to how to teach more than how to learn, unilaterally emphasize teachers’ role of “input” and stress uniqueness and standards, the role of learners as learning subjects has been overlooked. Educators advocate a new English teaching pattern: student-centered teaching. With this new teaching model, developing students’ independent learning ability is a primary task for teachers and educators. Furthermore, independent learning is also vital for second language learners in the future. At present, in China, Owing to big size of class, a teacher can not instruct every single student at any time. In addition, one foreign language learner’s ability differs from others, so learners should spend more time on independent learning to achieve their goals. Especially for freshmen, they should adjust themselves to the college English teaching, which advocates student-centered teaching pattern. Once they foster a sense of independent learning and take action, they will get great progress in English learning.Chapter Two: Literature Review2.1 The concept of independent learningOver the last few decades, autonomy has been a heated topic for language learning in the western countries. The concept of “independent learning” stemmed from debates about the development of life-long learning skills and the development of independent thinkers, both of which originated in 1960s (Gardner & Miller, 2002:6). It is

difficult to define concepts of autonomy, because different writers have defined the concepts in different ways. Various terms are used by many scholars such as “learner autonomy”, “self-instruction”, “self-direction”, “self-access”, etc. It was Holec (1981:3) who first brought forward the definition of independent learning in 1981, he defines autonomy as “the ability to take charge of one’s own learning”. According to Gardner and Miller (2002:6), there are some definitions of autonomy. Dickinson (1987:11) accepts the definition of autonomy as “a situation in which the learner is totally responsible for all of the decisions concerned with his or her learning and the implementation of those decisions”. In terms of different schools of thoughts, there are three major schools. Little (1990:7) considers learner autonomy as “essentially a matter of the learner’s psychological relation to the process and content of learning”. Kenny (1993:436) states that autonomy is not only the freedom to learn but also “the opportunity to become a person”. Both of them see autonomy as a personal characteristic. As the representative of political framework, Benson(1997:29) defines learner autonomy is “a recognition of the rights of learners within educational systems”. As for one school of thoughts viewing autonomy as an educational practice, Bound (1988:17) suggests that autonomy is “an approach to educational practice”. The above definitions deal with the concept of learner autonomy in past years. Later years, more and more discussion and additional details are carried out by a great numbers of scholars in western countries. These results offer perfect theory framework and instruction for researchers in language teaching. The research on independent learning in China began in the early 1990s. The researchers combine western scholars’ achievement and the situation in China and then define independent learning in different ways. Pang Weiguo (庞维国,2001:79) describes the independent learning from two angles: 1). The first is discussed from dimensionality: if learners can make choice and control themselves consciously, the process of learning can be regarded as independent learning. To be specific, if learners’ motivation is self-driven, the content of learning is self-selected, learning strategies are self-regulation and the learning time is planed and managed by learners, they can create the condition of learning and evaluate the results. Then we can say that the learning is independent.-2-

2). The second is defined from the process of learning: if learners can set goals and make plans before learning, monitor or adjust the process and plans of learning during the process, and check the results and evaluate themselves after learning, then the learning process can be regarded as independent learning. Hua Weifen ( 华 为 芬 , 2002:109) makes an induction from western scholars’ definition. She considers the independent learning as a process of learning as well as an outcome. Learners should not completely rely on teachers but take more charges of one’s own learning. Learners’ autonomy as a potential ability of learning decision, it needs an environment where learners can execute rights to promote the process of learning. Meanwhile, it also requires backup and instructions from teachers. Peng Jinding (彭金定,2002:16) concludes that the definition of independent learning should include five aspects: 1). Taking responsibility for learning; 2). Understanding of learning aims; 3). Making plans; 4). Evaluating the results; 5). Regulating the strategies. Xu Jinfen (徐锦芬,2007:11) points out that the learning autonomy in the English teaching context in China should cover the following five aspects: 1).Identifying the aims and requirement of teacher; 2).Formulating appropriate learning objectives and plans; 3).Selecting and implementing learning strategies; 4).Monitoring the use of learning strategies; 5).Monitoring and evaluating learning process. To sum up, all scholars view learners as participants who consciously set their own goals, regulate the motivation, select appropriate strategies and evaluate the learning outcomes. After taking into the consideration of the definitions by other scholars, combining the present study as well as the actual situation in China, the author is inclined to adopt Xu Jinfen’s definition of independent learning, considering one aspect: using effective learning resources in a constructive learning process. Based on the above discussion, independent learning can be defined as an ability that learners are initiative and responsible in setting goals, adopting the appropriate strategies, monitoring and evaluating learning process and using effective learning resources in a constructive learning process.-3-

2.2 Previous studies on independent learning at home and abroadIt was in the middle of 1970s that linguists abroad began to probe into the field of learner autonomy in foreign language teaching and learning (高吉利, 2005:61). In 1981, Holec raised the definition in his monograph Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. From then on, a great numbers of research appeared and got great achievement in theoretical studies. In general, western researches focus on the concept of independent learning and how to cultivate learner autonomy (Bound, 1988, Brookes and Grundy, 1988, Little, 1990, Dickinson, 1987, Benson and Voller, 1997, Gardner and Miller, 2002). These works discuss the theoretical background of learner autonomy in detail and analyze each factor that affects learner autonomy clearly, such as attitude, belief, strategy and role, and analyze how to promote learner autonomy in practice (徐锦芬, 2007:25). In China, as the research on independent learning is later than western countries, there exists limitation. Since 2001, more research on this field has been conducted. Wang Duqin (王笃勤,2002:17-23) conducts a survey to study university student’s metacognitive level, and claims to develop students’ self-learning ability through strategy training. Lei Xiao (2005:68-74) discusses college students’ belief of independent learning and provides a few techniques to deal with the corresponding problems in their beliefs. Wei Yuyan (魏玉燕, 2002:8-14) introduces this new teaching idea into FLT in China, including the definition of learner autonomy, the necessity and methods of fostering learner autonomy in foreign language learning. Xu Jinfen et al. (徐 锦芬、彭仁忠等,2004:64-68) investigate the actual situation of non-English major sophomore’s English independent learning. The result suggests that college students’ degree of independent learning stays at a low level in China. These studies enrich the theory of independent learning and practice of guiding the foreign language teaching, which is of practical significance. Although the previous researchers have made many achievements in China, most empirical studies focus on the objects of non-English major, studies on English major are limited.-4-

Chapter Three: The Concerning Factors on independent LearningFrom the above discussion, we know that independent learning can be considered as learning activity as well as learning ability. Taking many concerning factors into consideration, it is very difficult to improve the capability of learners’ independent learning, especially to change independent learning awareness to practice. Domestic researchers have a deep discussion about the concerning factors on independent learning, and group them into three main pairs of classifications: personality factors and common factors, controllable factors and uncontrollable factors, internal factors and external factors. In this thesis, the author prefers the third classification. That is to say, the concerning factors on independent learning can be divided into two categories: internal factors and external factors. As a learning activity, independent learning needs internal condition and the support of external condition. At the same time, as a kind of learning capability, learning autonomy is a relatively stable characteristic under a long-term interaction between learners and external environment (徐锦芬, 2007:62). independent learning is influenced by such internal factors such as learners’ motivation, learners’ belief, learning goals and plans, learning strategies, self-monitoring andself-assessment. In the meantime, it is also affected by external factors like teachers’ influence, learning resources, and so on.3.1 Internal factors3.1.1 Learners’ motivation Motivation is one of major factors that influence second language learning. Learning motivation is a concept of pedagogic psychology, which indicates the interior impetus and desire to stimulate learners to acquire knowledge (徐锦芬, 2007:67). If learners have a strong positive motivation in their language learning, they will do well in independent learning. That is to say, without positive motivation, learners can not set a right goal or make any plans to complete their language learning. Gardner and Lambert

(1972) highlight two different types of motivation: 1). Instrumental motivation: the desire to learn a language to fulfill certain utilitarian goals, such as getting a job, passing an examination, etc. 2). Integrative motivation: the desire to learn a language in order to communicate with people from other cultures; or desire to joint closely with the target language group. (quoted in 徐锦芬, 2007:67) Some students learn English out of interest, some students consider English as a tool in order to pass the examination or find a job. The different motivation can arouse different interest and goals, and these interest and goals would impact on the learner’s learning methods and effects. 3.1.2 Learners’ belief Learners’ belief refers to learners’ comprehension of study, which learners understand the learning objectives, tasks and teachers’ appraisal (陆根书、于德弘, 2003:47). Learners’ belief influence the way they learn, if learners have positive belief to learn a second language, the belief would influence their learning attitude and learning methods. That is to say, positive beliefs are beneficial to strengthen learning attitude, and then facilitate foreign language learning. On the contrary, the negative belief would weaken the learning motivation even lead to failure of learning. In language learning, beliefs and attitudes are shaped not only by the educational environment but also by family and social values. These influences on approaches to learning a language may encourage learners to experience new methods of learning, or conversely constrain and restrict their desire for a new learning experience (Gardner & Miller, 2002:37). Some learners mistakenly think that language learning would succeed in the way of accepting teacher’s instructions and following teacher’s steps. Thus, they are not interested in the student-centered teaching pattern which aims at cultivating learners’ autonomy. 3.1.3 Learning goals and plans Whether learning goals are efficient or not directly influences the learning results and efficiency. On the other side, learning plans also play an important role in-2-

independent learning. Learning autonomy needs learners consciously set learning specific learning goals and make efficient plans. “Establishing and forming a learning goal is to establish the direction of learning behavior” (刘亚轩, 2006:35). If learners realize their own goal, he would endeavor to work on their study more clearly than those who lack of learning goals. Some learners do not set their goals according to the self -situation and actual conditions. Thus, even though they establish a learning goal, their independent learning results could not be successful. According to Liu Yaxuan (刘亚轩, 2006:35), Learning goals commonly include general aims, specific goals and stage targets. General aims indicate that learners’ expectation to their own learning activity in a long period of time, which leads learners to work hard on their learning, whereas stage targets refer to a short time expectation under the charge of general aims. Specific goals are to establish a most basic goal aiming at some particular learning situation and activity. These three goals are interrelated and mutually constraining, learners should set appropriate goals based on their own situation. After establishing a goal, learners should make their learning plans to carry out. The learning plans also should be based on the goals and actual situation. Proper plans can promote the process of learning autonomy. Contrary, excessive plans not only hold up the independent learning but also make learners slide into depression and fail to language learning. 3.1.4 Learning strategies A language learning strategy is an attempt to develop second language competence. Learning strategies in second language learning research can be defined as “behaviors or actions learners use to make language learning more successful, self-directed and enjoyable” (丁言仁, 2004:149). In language learning, it is not always easy to determine whether the use of a strategy is conscious or only potentially so, but any use of appropriate learning strategies could enable learners access to success. Some researchers draw a distinction between cognitive, metacognitive and social / affective strategies: cognitive strategies are directly related to learning. For instance, some learners may memorize the new words to or may read aloud the sentence that contains those new words for several times. Metacognitive strategies are related to-3-

manage one’s learning activities. For instance, a learner may arrange his own study and evaluate the results, or may preview a lesson before going to class. Social/affective strategies have to do with how one relates to others. For example, seeking out opportunities to practice second language with others or consulting teachers for advices, working with other peers to learn language. In language learning, learners consciously use learning strategies in language skills, such as listening, speaking, reading and writing skills, which will promote English study effectively and increase efficiency. The effective utilization of learning strategies can help learners strengthen their responsibility and improve independent learning and independent ability. 3.1.5 Self-monitoring and self-assessment From the definition mentioned above, we know that learners should monitor their process of learning and evaluate the results. In China, teachers traditionally use teacher-centered teaching model. They do not spend much time to monitor every single student, which result in learner’s passive learning. Therefore, learners should have strong capability of monitoring, especially during L2 learning, learners have to overcome the interference of L1. Even though learners make plans on their study, if they do not monitor the process of learning, they would not insist on their study and find out the problems during the language learning. Holec (1981:3) points out the autonomy as “the ability to take charge of one’s own learning”, so regular self-assessment of learning process and the outcome is a useful tool to assist learners because it promotes monitoring of progress, stimulates learners to rectify strategies, and promotes feelings of self-efficiency. Although the examination results can make learners easily find out the problems in study, the poor results even make learners cause a sense of frustration. Compared with the traditional examination, self-assessment can comprehensively reflect the learners’ learning condition. For example, when learners realize their achievement in language learning, they will feel a great sense of accomplishment. With this positive affection, learners could be much easier to face their own disadvantage, and endeavor to revise their poor learning.-4-

3.2 External factors3.2.1 Teachers’ influence The teacher is one of the important external factors that influence learner’s independent learning. College teachers not only impart knowledge and skills to students, but also teach students how to manage their own study. Teachers play different roles in independent learning. They can be promoters, mangers, consulters or guiders. Generally speaking, the more inspiration teachers give, the more experience students gain. Teachers choose the teaching methods or books according to teaching needs, students have to know the content of learning, learn how to use learning strategy and give feedbacks. In interactive activity, learners can adjust their plans according the results and promote the successful independent learning. Without teachers’ help, it is difficult for learners to realize independent learning. Thus, teachers play important roles in promoting learner autonomy. 3.2.2 Learning resources Learning resources includes physical settings, equipment and furniture and other software settings. The physical settings include classrooms, libraries, or self-access centers and so on. These resources provide independent learning with an external condition. For example, much language learning can take place in the classroom, this is the simplest setting where students study. School library is a useful resource for language learners. There are many software settings like the Internet, multi-media. Learners can exceed the limits of class and choose the content and arrange their time and place according to their actual situation. Some scholars advise that self-access centers offer a learning environment with good condition. Some dedicated self-access centers have a wide range of technical equipment including computers, audio-player and satellite TV. In addition, learners can use anything related to English, for example, learners can consult a dictionary or learn funny English from life, or seek chances to talk with foreign people or ask some advices from others. Although there are many useful resources, if learners do not take advantage of the condition but simply read books or do homework, they could not promote the efficiency of independent learning. According to the above discussion, we know that independent learning is influenced-5-

by many internal and external factors. If learners want to improve independent learning ability, they should take these factors into consideration and deal well with them.-6-

Chapter Four: Survey DesignThe survey aims to get a better understanding of general situation of independent learning for English major freshmen at Hunan college of foreign studies trying to find out the weak aspects in their independent learning, and explore some effective ways to improve English learning and teaching.4.1 Survey questionsThrough the investigation, the author wants to know: 1) What is the general situation on independent learning for English major freshmen? 2) How is the students’ performance in the aspects of independent learning? 3) What are the differences on independent learning ability in learning environment?4.2 SubjectsThe subjects in this survey are 119 freshmen of English majors at Hunan college of foreign studies . The reason why freshmen are selected is that most of them had not become independent in learning since they just entered the university. The author wants to know whether the freshmen can adapt themselves to independent learning from traditional teaching pattern in middle school.Chapter Five: Data and AnalysisThe questionnaires were distributed to all freshmen in their class with the help of an English teacher. All the questionnaires were collected and 114 of them are valid. The response items are recorded in the following way: 1 point is given to choice 1, and 2 points to choice 2, 3 points to choice 3, 4 points to choice 4, and 5 points to choice 5.5.1 The overall view on independent learning.Table 1 shows the mean of overall view on each section.Overall views of results on independent learning

Aspects Section A Section B Section C Section D Section E Section F Section G Total Learners’ motivation Learners’ belief Teachers’ influence Learners’ goals and plans Learning strategies Self-monitoring and self-assessment Learning resourcesMean 3.39 3.82 3.28 3.12 3.09 3.12 2.92 3.25In table 1 , the mean values of the response to these aspects basically are above 3.00 except the last aspect. Among these averages of data, the learner’s belief towards independent learning is highest, which rise up to 3.82. The second highest is the aspect of learner’s motivation, which gets 3.39. The implementing of learning resources is 2.92, which is the lowest. The results suggest that the overall views on independent learning of freshmen stay at a medium level; they are mentally independent but behaviorally not. To get a better understanding of independent learning of English major freshmen, all seven aspects are analyzed in detail.5.2 Students’ performance in the aspects of independent learning5.2.1 Students’ motivationTable 2 Results on students’ motivation towards English learningPercentage (%) Items Mean Totally disagree 3.5 8.8 70.2 5.3 0-2-Sometime s disagree 11.4 10.5 13.2 11.4 0Uncertain 26.3 38.6 7.0 34.2 17.5Sometime s agree 35.1 33.3 5.3 35.1 40.4Strongly agree 23.7 8.8 4.4 14.0 42.11 2Language Culture Parents Jobs Tool3.64 3.23 4.39 3.41 4.25A3 4 5

6 7 8Other majors Going abroad Exam results2.77 2.46 3.0110.5 22.8 14.028.1 31.6 21.138.6 26.3 27.219.3 15.8 25.43.5 3.5 12.3Table 2 displays the mean, percentage of learner’s motivation towards English learning. We can see that the mean scores of item 3 and item 5 are above 4.00, the percentage of item 3 shows that most of students choose English as their major by their own decisions. 82.5% (40.4%+42.1%) of students consider that English is a useful communication tool in society (A5). The mean scores of item 1 rank the third, about 59% (35.1%+23.7%) of students say they like the language. Some students learn English because they may find a good job, the percentage of which accounts for 49.1 % (35.1%+14.0%) (A4). 42.1% (33.3%+8.8%) of students think that they choose English as their major because they are interested in foreign countries and their culture (A2). According to the motivation classification mentioned above, 82.5% (40.4%+42.1%) of students regard English as a useful communication tool. That is to say, their learning motivation can be considered as instrumental motivation. 58.8% (35.1%+23.7%) of students learn English because they like this language, and this motivation belongs to integrative motivation. Therefore, the instrumental motivation is higher than the integrative motivation. From this result, we might draw a conclusion that English majors are more extrinsically motivated than intrinsically motivated. Although both motivations play important roles in independent learning, intrinsic motivation is superior to extrinsic motivation. Most of students choose learning English without parents’ compulsion, which shows that the freshmen hold positive attitudes toward English learning. 5.2.2 Students’ beliefTable 3 Results of students’ belief towards independent learningPercentage (%) Items Mean Totally disagree 0.9 5.3-3-Sometime s disagree 3.5 15.9Uncertain 16.7 27.4Sometime s agree 38.6 28.3Strongly agree 40.4 23.01Difficulty Guidance4.14 3.48B2

3 4 5 6 7 8Successful key Error revision Methods Evaluation Personal effort Teacher’s capability4.47 3.34 4.66 3.09 4.75 2.620.9 4.4 0 1.8 0 14.00 11.4 0 23.7 0 26.38.8 40.4 2.6 43.0 1.8 44.731.6 33.3 28.9 27.2 21.1 13.258.8 10.5 68.4 4.4 77.2 1.8In this table, we can see that mean values above 4.00 are in these items (item1, 3, 5, 7). Among of these items, item 7 is highest, which gets 4.75. Item 5 and item 3 following the first in succession. Most of students (79%) (38.6%+40.4%) hope that teachers can point out the difficulties in their study (B1). About 51% of students hope teachers can tell them what to learn and how to learn (B2). In item 4, 43.8% (33.3%+10.5%) of students consider that teachers should revise their errors in English learning. Some students concern that teachers should be responsible for evaluation, the numbers account for 31.6 % (27.2%+4.4%) (B6). Only 15% (13.2%+1.8%) of students consider that teachers’ high capability would influence learners’ English level (B8). From this result, we can see the freshmen have a certain sense of independent learning to some extent; they hold a positive belief to English learning. At the same time, they rely on teachers in some aspects, such as determining learning contents, diagnosing the difficulties in study and evaluating the learning results. As English majors, the freshmen have a positive belief to learn English, they hope to find an effective method to improve their English study, and consider that the successful learning is due to their own efforts. However, since they just left high school and start college study, there still exists a sense of dependence in their mind. Most of students used to follow teachers’ steps, which forms a teacher-centered pattern. They are inclined to teacher’s help and wait for the teacher’s instruction rather than independently solve problems by themselves during the language learning. 5.2.3 Students’ comprehension towards teachers’ aims and requirementTable 4 Results of identifying the aims and requirement of teacher -4-

Percentage (%) Items Mean Totally disagree 5.3 2.6 0.9 0 1.8 Sometim es disagree 21.9 23.7 11.4 10.7 9.6 Uncertain 45.6 48.2 42.1 30.4 36.0 Sometim es agree 25.4 23.7 32.5 50.0 47.4 Strongly agree 1.8 1.8 13.2 8.9 5.31 2Teachers’ aims Learners’ aims Importance Activities’ aims Keeping steps2.96 2.98 3.46 3.57 3.45C3 4 5Table 4 shows the results of identifying the aims and requirement of teachers. The mean value of items is not very high. Only 27.2% (25.4%+1.8%) of students can understand the teaching purpose and requirements of teachers (C1), 45.6% of students respond with neutral answer. While asked whether they can realize the importance of making teachers’ teaching aims to be their own, about 45.7% (32.5%+13.2%) of students agree with it (C3). However, only 25.5% (23.7%+1.8%) of students can successfully make the teacher’s teaching aims to be their own (C2). About half of students (52.7%) can keep up with the teacher’s teaching in class(C5). From this table, we can realize that most of students do not clearly understand the teaching purpose and requirement of teachers, and they could not successfully make the teacher’s teaching aims to be their own. However, the freshmen can keep steps with teachers’ teaching in class. The reasons might be the following: 1). Teachers might not specify their teaching aims before lessons, so that students are not aware of the learning objectives and could not make their own learning goals. 2). Teachers’ teaching objects are too difficult for them. 3). Teacher’s teaching method is not suitable for students. 4). Students passively learn language in class. 5.2.4 Students’ goals and plansTable 5 Results on learning goals and plansPercentage (%) Items Mean Totally disagree Sometime s disagree-5-UncertainSometime s agreeStrongly agree

1 2Extra plans Goals Adjusting plans Time arrangement Checking plans3.38 3.46 3.38 2.82 2.563.5 2.6 1.8 6.1 6.111.4 10.5 14.9 16.7 45.641.2 37.7 36.8 39.5 35.131.6 36.0 36.8 28.9 12.312.3 13.2 9.6 8.8 .9D3 4 5Table 5 is the results on mean and percentage of formulating learning goals and plans. From the table, the mean of every item stays at medium level. About 49.2% (36.0%+13.2%) of students can set practical goals for English learning, and its mean value is highest (D2). About 46.4% (36.8%+9.6%) of freshmen can adjust the learning plans according to actual situation (D3). 43.9% (31.6%+12.3%) of students have clear learning plans beside assignments from teachers (D1), but we can see about 41.2% of students choose the neutral answer. The mean value of time arrangement is lower than 3.00, and 37.7% (28.9%+8.8%) of students have no idea about the time arrangement, 39.5% of students are not sure about that. The mean value of checking completion of plans is lowest among these items. About half of students (51.7%) (6.1%+45.6%) do not check the completion of plans after learning everyday (D5). Based on the table, we can see that the freshmen have their own plans beside teachers’ assignment and goals for their English learning. However, they seldom work out their plans and check the completion, and have no idea to mange their learning time. Instead they just cope with the assignment. In general, the freshmen’ independent learning on formulating goals and plans’ level is relatively low. Since freshmen just left high school to attend college, they incompletely get accustomed to their college life. Even though they have their own plans and goals, they are incapable of carrying out their plans and managing learning time well. Before they went to college, their high school teachers always make plans for them, which result in that students might not carry out their plans and mange time independently. In addition, college students have much more free time than before, some students want to do part-time job or other entertainments. They might not spend much time on study, so their learning plans are always laid aside.-6-

5.2.5 Students’ learning strategiesTable 6 Results on implementation of learning strategiesPercentage (%) Items Mean Totally disagree 4.4 1.8 1.8 .9 0 Sometime s disagree 35.1 25.4 28.1 10.5 17.5 Uncertain Sometime s agree 14.0 22.8 20.2 36.8 34.2 Strongly agree 4.4 6.1 5.3 7.0 2.61 2Awareness of strategies Listening strategies Communicatio n strategies Reading strategies Writing strategies2.79 3.06 2.99 3.39 3.2242.1 43.9 44.7 44.7 45.6E3 4 5Table 6 presents the results of implementation of learning strategies. It is clear that students know little about learning strategies, with mean value of 2.79. Only about 18% (14%+4.4%) of students clearly understand the learning strategies, while the left are not sure or know little about it. About 30% (1.8%+28.1%) of students could not use effective communicative strategies and 44.7% of students give a neutral answer and its mean value lower than other learning strategies. Only 28.9% (22.8%+6.1%) of them could implement the listening strategies. Some students could use effective reading and writing strategies (43.8% of students approve item 4 and 36.8% of them agree with item 5). According to this table, we can see that most of students respond with neutral answers in all items. The results show that the freshmen might not understand what learning strategies are, and they could not use learning strategies very well. On the implementation of strategies, the freshmen perform worse in listening and communication than the other two skills. For this situation, the author considers that the traditional teaching method influences the independent learning of college students. Teachers in high school pay much more attention to impart language point and overlook the learning strategies training. Students adopt this traditional method and formulated a habit and it is difficult for them to change. In high school, students have to do more reading and writing-7-

exercises to pass the collage entrance examination. In these aspects, they subconsciously implement reading and writing strategies. Oppositely, they have no much time or chance to communicate with others in English. In addition, few high schools open listening course and teachers might not always use English in teaching, so students might not know how to use listening strategies. 5.2.6 Students’ self-monitoring and self-evaluationTable 7 Results on self-monitoring and self-evaluationPercentage (%) Items Mean Totally disagree 0.9 0.9 0.9 0 0 0 6.1 2.6 2.6 3.5 Sometim es disagree 22.8 6.1 14.9 17.5 22.8 12.3 38.6 36.8 26.3 19.3 Uncertain 49.1 40.4 42.1 37.7 51.8 44.7 43.0 45.6 45.6 46.5 Sometim es agree 22.8 44.7 36.0 36.0 18.4 34.2 8.8 12.3 21.9 26.3 Strongly agree 4.4 7.9 6.1 8.8 7.0 8.8 3.5 2.6 3.5 4.41 2 3 4 5Application Mistake Solution Choosing methods Summarization Analyzing results Test questions Checking accomplishment Updating knowledge Cooperation3.07 3.53 3.32 3.36 3.10 3.39 2.65 2.75 2.97 3.09F6 7 8 9 10Table 7 demonstrates the results of self-monitoring and self-evaluation in the learning process. The data show that the students’ self-monitoring and self-evaluation levels are not very high. Among these data, the highest mean is 3.53 (F2), the lowest is 2.65 (F7). About half of students (52.6%) (44.7%+4.9%) are aware of the mistakes in the learning process. Only 12.3% (8.8%+3.5%) of students would find some test questions to check their English level. Few students can consciously apply newly learnt knowledge into the language practice, which only takes up 27.2% (22.8%+4.4%) (F1). We can easily find that more than 40% of students responded with neutral answer in-8-

item 3, 5,6,8,9 and 10. According to the results, we can find that the freshmen are not good at self-monitoring and self-evaluation, even though they have awareness ofself-monitoring and self-evaluation. Actually, they could not carry out the awareness into practice or cultivate good learning habits. The author thinks the reason might be that most teachers rarely guide students to self-monitor and self-evaluate. On one hand, the college students might not communicate with teachers and classmates for their own self-esteem. Most students would rather learn alone than cooperate with others, which can be seen from item 10. On the other hand, students expect teachers’ help and guidance in evaluation. 5.2.7 Students’ utilization of learning resourcesTable 8 Results on learning resources utilizationPercentage (%) Items Mean Totally disagree 3.5 4.4 3.5 7.1 Sometime s disagree 28.1 28.1 33.3 37.2 Uncertain 43.0 40.4 45.6 40.7 Sometime s agree 21.1 23.7 14.0 13.3 Strongly agree 4.4 3.5 3.5 1.81 2 3 4Reading Media The Internet Talking with others Chatting in English on the Internet Dictionary Daily English Chatting in English outside class Self-study Libraries2.95 2.94 2.81 2.6552.25 3.63 3.23 2.73 3.00 3.0623.7 0.9 0 4.4 4.4 7.036.0 6.1 20.2 37.2 27.2 18.433.3 38.6 43.9 44.2 40.4 44.76.1 37.7 28.9 9.7 20.2 21.1.9 16.7 7.0 4.4 7.9 8.8G6 7 8 9 10We can see from table 8 that all the mean values of items are not very high. Most of students always consult dictionary, with the mean value of 3.63, while 59.7%-9-

(23.7%+36.0%) of students would not chat with others in English on the Internet (G5). Few students would utilize the resources to learn English, such as reading English novel or listening to English radio, searching the Internet for information. Mean values of Item 1, 2, 3 almost stay at the same level. 15.1% (13.3%+1.8%) of students would ask for help from teachers and classmates (G4). 35.9% (28.9%+7.0%) of students can learn English from daily life or media (G7). Only 14.1% (9.7%+4.4%) of students actively communicate with others in English both in and outside class (G8). About 30% of students would go to classroom to self-study or go to libraries (G9, G10). Compared with previous results, the majority of freshmen could not do well in utilizing learning resources and seeking for opportunities to practice English. We can find a relationship between learning strategies and learning resources utilization: students might not listen to English radio or watch TV program, even lack practicing oral exercises, which would influence the learning strategies implementation to some extent. With the popularity of the Internet, students have more chances than before. However, the freshmen might not make full use of the Internet to search English information. They would chat with others in native language rather than English on Internet. The reason might be that the freshmen get used to speaking native language. It is difficult and inconvenient to chat with others in English, or they have no many chances to speak English with English speaking people. Most of students seldom talk in English both in and outside class because they are shy to speak out and afraid of losing face. Today, most of students’ sense of independence is strong, they would solve problems rather than asking for helps or cooperate with others.Chapter Six: Conclusions6.1 Major findings of the surveyThrough the survey of independent learning, the questions proposed at the beginning can be answered and major findings can be summarized in the followings: 1) The overall degree of independent learning of English major freshmen remains at- 10 -

a medium level. Students are independent on awareness but not on the behavior. 2) The results of students’ performance in the aspects of independent learning can be concluded as follows: Firstly, the majority of students’ instrumental motivation is stronger than integrative motivation. They think that learning English is useful in the future. The freshmen hold positive belief to learn English but still depend on teachers. That is to say, they are still bound by teacher-centered teaching method. Not so many students understand the objectives of teaching and make their own goals. Secondly, the freshmen can set learning goals and make learning plans but commonly do not carry them out. Moreover, most of them have no idea about time arrangement. In addition, they have little knowledge about the learning strategies and incapable of implementing the learning strategies in the process of language learning, the freshmen could not do well in the aspects of monitoring and evaluating. Last but important, most of students do not make full use of learning resources. Even though abundant resources can be utilized, they lack initiative to use those resources, and they are more willing to be taught in class. Furthermore, they are unwilling to actively cooperate with others to learn. 3) There is a significant difference on independent learning ability in different learning environment. Urban students do better in independent learning than rural students, especially in the aspects of learning strategies, self-monitoring and self-assessment and using learning resources.6.2 Suggestions for promoting independent learningBeing taught under a teacher-centered pattern, the students foster a dependent English study habit. It is necessary to formulate learner autonomy. Especially for English major freshmen, there is much potential to develop their independent learning. Therefore, the author wants to give some suggestions for promoting independent learning. 6.2.1 Teachers’ role in promoting independent learning As we known, teachers play a critical role in launching students into independent- 11 -

learning. Generally speaking, teachers act not only as guides but also as facilitators, assessors and so on. Therefore, teachers should change the teaching pattern from teacher-centered to learner-centered. They had better pay more attention to helping students understand how to learn instead of spending much time and energies on how to teach. Firstly, teachers can try to change students’ misconception and present some related information on language learning to help students set realistic goals. As guides, teachers should make appropriate teaching goals and let students understand. Secondly, teachers should try to create a relaxing classroom atmosphere is one of good ways to stimulate students’ interest. Teachers can organize various activities such as games, debate and interviews to increase students’ learning enthusiasm. Making use of multimedia courseware can bring up and waken students learning interest, and can cultivate students’ ability to improve teaching quality. Thirdly, teachers had better provide information about learning strategies and offer learning strategies training, implement direct instruction during teaching. Teachers can give different and effective guidance to students according to their different learning styles. As for the rural students, teachers can introduce some learning strategies and teach them how to monitor and assess their study, offer chance to practice English in daily teaching. All in all, promoting learner autonomy does not mean abandoning the teachers’ control and guidance. Teachers not only impart knowledge to students but also help students to learn independently. 6.2.2 Learners’ role in fostering autonomy. Students as the center of independent learning should foster good learning habit. First of all, students should develop intrinsic motivation to the English learning, and gradually gets rid of being over-dependent on teachers. As language learners, students can try to develop interest in English learning through watching films or listening English songs. Next, students should form a habit of previewing text before class, which can make them easily understand what teachers are about to teach. When making plans, students could divide their plans into three procedures: learning progress schedules, time arrangement, and a timetable. Students can arrange their learning time according- 12 -

to the procedures. Thirdly, students can take part in some English contest or other activities to improve their English level. Meanwhile, students can enhance self-monitoring and self-evaluation by writing diaries and self-reflection to explore their own learning method. Last but importantly, students should make full use of learning resources, such as English radio, the Internet and libraries and so on. Furthermore, students should actively take any chances to practice English and cooperate with others in English learning. In a word, students should take more responsibility on their independent learning. Their major roles in the process of learning can not be replaced by others. 6.2.3 Teaching environment As second language learners in China, it is unavoidable to be interfered by the learning environment. To promote learners’ independent learning competence, it is necessary to create learning environment for language learners. It is advised for teachers to use target language to implement teaching as much as possible in class and offer more opportunities and interaction to learners to practice. Besides, school can set an independent learning center with good condition, providing multi-media, TV, on-line reading facilities, and so on. Some English activities also can be provided to learners, such as English corner, English salon and English competition or shows, which offer chances to learners to learn on their own. School can cooperate with other foreign universities in teaching and offer opportunities to learn in native language environment. In a word, creating a favorable autonomy environment will strengthen students’ independent learning motivation and make them become more willing to learn English independently. As English major students, the freshmen have more advantage than non-English major in the foreign language learning. Generally speaking, the high level of independent learning would help them make a great progress in later English learning. All in all, there is a long way to develop learner autonomy, both teachers and students should pay more attention to it and cooperate with each other to promote independent learning.- 13 -

References[1]Benson, P. The philosophy and politics of learner autonomy[A]. In P. Benson and P. Voller (Eds.). Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning [C]. London: Longman, 1997. [2]Benson, P. & Voller, P. (Eds) Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning [M]. London: Longman, 1997. [3]Bound, D. (Ed.) Developing Student Autonomy in Learning [M]. London: Kogan Page, 1988. [4]Brookes, A. & Grundy, P. Individualization and Autonomy in Language Learning [M].London: Modern English Publication in association with the British Council, 1988. [5]Dickinson, L. Self-instruction in Language learning [M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. [6]Gardner, D. & Miller, L. Establishing Self-Access: From Theory to Practice [M]. 上海: 上海外语教育出版社, 2002. [7]Gardner, R. C. & Lambert, W. E. Attitudes and motivation in second language learning [M]. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1972. [8]Holec, H. Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning [M]. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1981. [9]Kenny, B. For more autonomy[J]. System, 1993(4). [10]Little, D. Autonomy in language learning: some theoretical and practical considerations. In I. Gathercole (Ed.) Autonomy In Language Learning [M]. London: CILT, 1990. [11]丁言仁. 第二语言习得研究与外语学习[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社,2004. [12]高吉利. 国内外语自主学习研究状况分析综述[J].外语教学,2005(1). [13]郭晓宁. 英语专业学生自主学习能力的调查与分析[J]. 山东外语教学, 2007(3). [14]华维芬. “学习者自主”探析[J]. 深圳大学学报, 2002(2). [15]陆根书,于德弘.学习风格与大学生自主学习[M]. 西安:西安交通大学出版社,2003. [16]雷霄. 大学生学习观念与学习自主性培养[J].外语界, 2005(3). [17]刘亚轩. 试论学习目标及动机生成[J]. 大连教育学院学报, 2006(3). [18]彭金定. 大学英语教学中的“学习者自主”问题研究[J]. 外语界, 2002(3).

[19]庞维国. 论学生的自主学习[J].华东师范大学学报(教育科学版), 2001(2). [20]王笃勤. 大学英语自主学习能力的培养[J]. 外语界, 2002(5). [21]魏玉燕. 促进学习者自主性:外语教学新概念[J].外语界, 2002(3). [22]徐锦芬. 大学外语自主学习理论与实践[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社, 2007. [23]徐锦芬,彭仁忠,吴卫平. 非英语专业大学生自主性英语学习能力调查与分析[J].外语 教学与研究, 2004(1).-2-

-3-

 
 

微信扫一扫 关注一点知道
微信提问题 答案马上自动回复