商务英语毕业论文范文[1]

 时间:2012-04-19 18:03:48 贡献者:海大o小罗

导读:ContentsIntroduction…………………………………………………………………………..1 Chapter One Cultural Differenceces………………………………………………..1 1.1 The Definition of Culture…………………

商务英语毕业论文范文[1]
商务英语毕业论文范文[1]

ContentsIntroduction…………………………………………………………………………..1 Chapter One Cultural Differenceces………………………………………………..1 1.1 The Definition of Culture………………………………………….....................1 1.2 Causes of Cultural Differences………………………………………………….2 1.2.1 Regional Differences……………………………………………………….2 1.2.2 Ethnic Differences…………………………………………………………2 1.2.3 Political Differences……………………………………………………….2 1 .2.4 Economic Differences…………………………………………………….2 1.2.5 Religious Differences………………………………………………….......3 1.2.6 Value Differences………………………………………………………….3 1.2.7 Law and Ethics Differences……………………………………………….3 Chapter Two Impact of Cultural Differences on International Business Negotiations…………………………………………………………………………..3 2.1Impact of Value Views Differences on International Business Negotiations ..... 4 2.1.1Impact of Time View Difference on Negotiation....................................... 4 2.1.2Impact of Equality View Difference on Negotiation. ................................ 5 2.1.3 Impact of Objectivity Difference on Negotiation. .................................... 6 2.2 Impact of Negotiating Style Differences on International Business Negotiations. ............................................................................................................ 62.3 COMMUNICATION PROCESS…………………………………..3. Coping Strategy Of Negotiating Across Cultures. .............................................. 12 3.1 Making Preparations before Negotiation. ........................................................ 12 3.2 Overcoming Cultural Prejudice. ...................................................................... 13 3.3 Conquering Communication Barriers. ............................................................. 13 Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 17 Bibliography ............................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

Acknowledgements .................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

摘要不同文化条件下的商务谈判就是跨文化谈判。

在世界经济日趋全球化的今 天,随着国际间商务交往活动的频繁和密切,各国间的文化差异就显得格外的重 要,否则将会引起不必要的误会,甚至可能直接影响商务交往的实际效果。

这味 着如何化解各国不同文化背景在国际商务谈判中是非常重要的。

文章从文化差异 的类型入手,然后解释了这些文化差异对国际商务谈判的影响,最后分析了如何 正确解决谈判过程中文化差异的问题。

文章强调了这样一个观点,在不同国家商 务谈判中,谈判员应该接受对方的文化,并试图是自己被对方所接受,然后在有 效沟通的帮助下做出正确评估,并找出它们之间的真正利益。

此外,们应该尽可 能的清楚的了解并发现对方的文化。

这对文化谈判的成功至关重要。

关键词:文化,文化差异,商务谈判,影响

AbstractThe business negotiations under different cultural conditions come to crosscultural negotiations. With the economic globalization and the frequent business contacts, cultural differences seem to be very important; otherwise they could cause unnecessary misunderstanding, even affect the result of the business negotiations. This means it is very important to know the different culture in different countries and the ways to avoid the culture conflicts in the international business negotiations. The article commences from the types of culture differences, then it explains the impacts of these culture differences on international business negotiation and finally it analyzes how to deal with the problem of the cultural differences correctly in negotiation process. Such a standpoint is emphasized: In the business negotiations between different countries, negotiators should accept the other party’s culture, and try to make him be accepted; then make a correct evaluation with the help of valid communication and discover their real benefits between them. Besides, we should know clearly and try to accept the culture differences as possible as we can. It is very important for the success of culture negotiations.Key words: Culture, Clturaltal differences,Business negotitation,Impact

IntroductionAlong with the advancement globalization and China’s WTO entry, business enterprises in China have to face more and more business negotiations with foreign enterprises, especially with American enterprises. In these negotiations, Chinese negotiators sometimes feel uncomfortable, puzzled, lost, irritated and the alike, because of unfamiliar custom and behaviors demonstrated by American negotiators. Meanwhile, American negotiators confront the same situation. Cult rural differences between China and west countries could cause many problems. Therefore, understanding cultural differences and overcoming them is crucial in international business negotiations. Although the definition of culture is numerous and vague, it is commonly Recognized that culture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, values, attitudes and expectations. Culture is a major determinant in business negotiation. So have a clear picture of culture differences if of great significance.Chapter One Cultural DifferencesThe east countries and west countries have produced different cultures on the different continents. Among the different cultures, value views, negotiating style and thinking model appear more obvious.1.1 The Definition of CultureCulture is a national system of specific concepts and values. These concepts become people’s behavior during their life and work. As early as 1952, Kroeber and Kluckhohn listed 164 definitions of culture that they found in the anthropology literature. Of course, many new definitions have appeared since then. For example, some scholars gave such definition that culture is an integrated system of learned behavior patterns which are characteristic of the members of a society and not the result of biological inheritance. In the thesis, culture refers to the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, morals, customs, habits, and capabilities acquired by individuals who interact in a specific area of society.1

1.2 Causes of Cultural DifferencesThe impacts of regional differences, ethnic differences, political differences, economic differences, religious differences and value differences on people’s life are embodied in the catering, clothing, housing, holidays, rituals and other material and cultural life in all aspects. These result in cultural differences in different countries and regions.1.2.1 Regional DifferencesRegional differences refer to that people in different geographical regions often have different languages, life styles and hobbies because of the differences of geographical environments, levels of economic development and traditions, which would affect their behavior and habits. For example, western countries pay more attention to Christmas, while the regions have no snow, such as some African countries near the equator, where people have no idea of Christmas. The reason is that the best decoration to Christmas is snow, but people near the equator are not familiar with the snow which never falls on there.1.2.2 Ethnic DifferencesEthnic differences refer to that different ethnic groups in the process of long-term development form its own languages, customs, habits and hobbies. They have their own characteristics in their diet, clothing, housing, holidays, rituals and other material and cultural life.1.2.3 Political DifferencesPolitical differences mean that policies and regulations of the political system standardize the behavior of the people’s role so that people under different political system have different political concepts. Take America and France for example: the power of American president is strictly limited by the Constitution and the other two authorities---Congress and Supreme Court. While France has to expand their president’s power due to their own conditions.1 .2.4 Economic DifferencesEconomic difference is a reflection of the cultural differences due to economic factors. For example, people in the western developed countries have the rich life, and receive the high education so that they pay more attention to the quality of life, and2

they have good safety awareness. But in the Third World, especially the developing countries, people are more concerned with the problem of food and clothing. So this is reflected in cultural differences.1.2.5 Religious DifferencesReligion is a historical product with human beings developing into a certain stage. There are three main religions in the world: Christianity, Buddhism and Islam. Christian (Protestant) is predominant in northern Europe, North America and Australia; Christian (Catholic) is predominant in Western Europe and South American countries. Islam largely scope of the Middle East and North Africa. Many people in Asia regions believe in Buddhism. Different religions have different cultural trends and precepts, which affect the way that people understand things, conduct and values.1.2.6 Value DifferencesValue concepts mean people’s evaluation criteria to human being’s internal world. It contains time value, wealth value, the attitude toward life and risk. To the same problems, different people in different societies have different views or even diametrically opposite views. For example, parents in western countries tend to cultivate children to be independent. They encourage their children to deal with their personal things by themselves. Parents in eastern countries, however, always spoil their children. They always help their children finish some things which the children have the ability to cope with by themselves. This causes their dependence on their parents even when they grow up. This shows that different countries share different values.1.2.7 Law and Ethics DifferencesLaw and ethics is an integrated system, but sometimes they are contradictive in business negotiation. Western people like to deal with things according to laws. They usually go to negotiate with accompaniment of their lawyers. On the contrary, eastern people pay more attention to ethics rather than laws. In their eyes, business ethics refers to the measurement of business behavior based on standards of right or wrong, rather than relying entirely on principles of accounting, management or laws.Chapter Two Impact of Cultural Differences on International Business Negotiations3

With the rapid development of economy, we need to do business with businessmen under different culture background, so in order to reach trade agreement, it is necessary for us to study the impact of culture differences on international negotiation in global business activities. The impact of culture differences oninternational negotiation is extensive and deeply. Different cultures divide the people into different group and they are also the obstacles of people’s communication. Accordingly, it is required that the negotiator should accept the culture of each other. Furthermore, through culture differences, it is important that the negotiator reveal and understand the other party’s goal and behavior and make him or herself be accepted by the opponent to reach agreement finally2.1 Impact of Value Views Differences on International Business NegotiationsValue Views Differences on International Business Negotiations fall into three types: time view, negotiation style, thinking model. Each has big influences on business negotiation2.1.1 Impact of Time View Difference on Negotiation.The time view which affects the negotiator’s behavior varies from east countries to west countries. The oriental or the Chinese negotiators are usually cautious and patient. They need to go through the phrases of coming up with proposes, bringing up objections and ending the trade which takes a longer time. And they hope to arrange rich time to go on a negotiation, thus knowing more about the opponent .They are good at long and continuous battle. While west people or we could say American people, consider time is precious. They tend to resolve problems swiftly. So, in business negotiation, American businessmen often complain about the delay and the lack of efficiency of negotiators from other countries, while these countries also make a complaint that the Americans lack patience. There is a popular saying among4

American negotiators and businessmen: It is prohibited to steal time. That shows the time view of Americans. To them, time means money. The time view of Chinese is cyclic. They use long-term and systematic viewpoints to value the importance of the topic. A famous people classify the time view into two kinds: straight-line time viewand cyclic time view. The former pay more attention to concentration and speed, and the later stress doing many things at one time. That they insist on different time view leads to different negotiating style and method. The American people represent the straight-line time view and they have a strong awareness of modern competition. They look for speed and efficiency. So they value time badly and consider time as a special commodity whose value could be assessed. They often use minute to calculate time .They hope to reduce negotiation time at every phrase and want to complete the negotiation quickly. But the Chinese time view is cyclic and they place emphasis on unity. Moreover, it is necessary to be punctual at negotiations. West people have a strong time view, if you don’t comply with the appointment time, they may give you a punishment and they will regard you as unreliable and irresponsible person. Being late for negotiation will give the west businessmen opportunities to exert pressure onyou, and then you will lose the status of being initiative.2.1.2 Impact of Equality View Difference on NegotiationAmerica went through the bourgeoisie revolution of striving for the equality and freedom, so they take equality into their heart. Americans stick to equality and fairness in business, and hope that both could gain benefit. When introducing the topic or situation, the west people would like to use concrete method, particularly data. Their negotiating method is that they will describe their viewpoint and propose at the beginning in order to get initiative. Under this principle, they would come up with a reasonable resolution which they think is very fair. In business relationship, the sellers from America regard the buyer as a counterpart. Americans are fairer than Japanese is sharing benefits. A lot of American managers think fair division of profits is more important than how much they could get. At this point, the east people are5

different. Because of the deeply influence of class view, they don’t pay much attention to equality. They usually adopt single-win strategy in business negotiations. When involving economic benefits they think much about their own benefits and profits and don’t give so much attention to the benefit of their partners. The market economic system of developed countries is quite mature, so west countries take win-win strategy more in negotiation; basically, they could take the benefits of both into consideration.2.1.3 Impact of Objectivity Difference on NegotiationThe objectivity in international business negotiation reflects the degree to which people treat any things. West people especially Americans have a strong objectivity on the understanding of issues. At negotiation table, Americans don’t care much about relationship between people. They don’t care if the status of the opponent is equal to theirs. They make decision based on facts and data, not people. The saying that public things use public ways is a reflection of American objectivity. Therefore,Americans emphasize that Businessmen should distinguish people and issues, what they are really interested in is the actual problems. But in the other parts of the world, it is impossible for them to distinguish people and issues2.2 Impact of Negotiating Style Differences on International Business NegotiationsThe impacts of negotiating style differences on international business negotiation mainly exist in negotiating method and negotiating structure. Take the negotiation between America and China as a example, since the oriental care more about unity in thinking, they method they adopt in negotiation is from unity to parts, from the big to little, from the abstract to the concrete, that is to say they should each agreement on general terms, then begin to talk about the concrete terms. And usually not until the end of the negotiation do they make compromise and promise based on all the items, and then to reach agreement. The west people are influenced by analytic thinking, so6

pay more attention to logical relations between things. They consider more about concrete things than integrity. And they tend discuss the concrete items at the beginning of negotiation, so they often resolve the price, delivery and issuance respectively at first. And they may make compromise at every detail, so the final contract is the combination of many little agreements. The negotiating structure is linked with cultures. Negotiating structure mostly refers to the number of the participants. In business negotiation, the foreign delegation is usually composed by 3-5 people, while the Chinese one could be more 15 people. The foreign negotiators not only need to negotiate with their counterparts but also need to discuss with related person in charge or the government. When making the final decisions, the Chinese negotiators often discuss the results repeatedly from the workers to the board to avoid being decided by a single person. That results from the influence of collectivism. So they often said to their partners: Let us think about it. Let us discuss it. But the west negotiators could make the final decision without going back for discussion. That because their admire individualism and hard working. They have strong independence. They would carry on according to the best ways after knowing their goals. What’s more, most west people think that they have the ability to deal with the negotiation situation on their own. And truly, they are brave enough to take responsibility.2.3 Communication ProcessIn the international business negotiation, communication process is very important, and it contains two parts, verbal communication and nonverbal communication2.3.1 Verbal CommunicationVerbal communication mainly refers to language communication. Language is important to international business negotiation, because it is how we reach out to make contract with others. We all agree that language play an important role in communication with people from different backgrounds. However, we may be less7

aware that cultural literacy is necessary in order to understand the language. If we select language without being aware of the cultural implications, we may not communicate well and even send the wrong message. Therefore, during the international business negotiation process, a good interpreter can help overcome the cultural barriers.2.3.2 Nonverbal CommunicationSimply, nonverbal communication refers to communication without the use of words. Even if you know the language, cultures differ in the use of nonverbal communication. Cultural differences may cause negotiators to play differently on facial expressions, gestures, and the other kinds of body language. Researchers have shown that the words a person speaks may be far less important than the body language used when delivering the verbal message, and they estimate that less than 30% of communication between two individuals within the same culture is verbal in nature. Over 70% of communication takes place nonverbally. Some other scholars even say that 90% of the information is actually transmitted through nonverbal means. We are not sure of that. But one thing we are sure is that in face-to-face communication nonverbal signals are just as important as verbal message. Take head movement for example, generally speaking, in most cultures nodding one’s head is seen as agreement while shaking one’s head is seen as rejection. But, in Bulgaria, for instance, people may nod their heads to signify no and shake their heads to signify yes. A lowered head in the western culture can signify defeat or uncertainty. In Asian cultures lowering one’s head may mean acceptance2.4 international Thinking and Analytic ThinkingEasterners lay stress on harmony and entirety, while westerners on analysis and part. In other words, easterners view things from whole to part, while westerners from part to whole. Chinese people have been accustomed to dividing one issue into two opposite parts that are considered as interactive and interdependent; they hold the8

view that human and nature are an indivisible unity. With regard to the relationship among people, they appeal to collectivism and trust their own intuition. For thousands of years, this kind of thinking pattern has occupied a dominant position in China and becomes the core of cognition and communication. Therefore, Chinese people are used to making a comprehensive survey of the overall situation first, and then thinking over details. They depend on intuition and are imbued with imagination. People call this “round thinking mode” (Jia Yuxin, 1997). Western thinking pattern is noted for logic, analysis, and linearity. By adopting the method of bisection, westerners consider subject and object, material and spirit diametrically opposed, i.e., things just have two possibilities, either this or that, when thinking, westerners usually start from parts, and then think about the whole situation, which is called “linear thinking mode”(Jia Yuxin, 1997,p.100).2.4.1 Concrete Thinking and Abstract ThinkingBasically, people in any country have concrete thinking pattern and abstract thinking pattern. However, due to the difference in history and culture, each nation has its emphasis on either of them. On the whole, traditional Chinese culture is known for concrete thinking while western culture for abstract thinking. Based on experience, concrete thinking depends on analogy, metaphor and symbol. Ancient westerners adopted abstract thinking to deal with problems by means of concept, judgment, and reasoning.2.5 Negotiation StructureCultural differences also impact on negotiation structure. Different countries have different negotiation structure, so do the team. The team in eastern countries feel that time is abundant and humans should not follow the timetable blindly. For example, Chinese people are famous for the length of their negotiations; they spend much time in the non-task sounding stage of negotiation to establish rapport and get to know their partners. Chinese people usually discuss many issues at one time, without an apparent order, they may skip from one issue to another and they may also come back to points which in the eyes of their Western partners have already been settled and concessions are made or all issues at the end of the discussion.9

However, the team in western countries regard time as money and would like to set fixed agendas. Western countries are emblematic of the “time is money” culture, where time is a scarce resource. People would try to achieve its optimal allocation between the competing ways of using it. They establish timetables and deadlines. Norms tend to be strict regarding time schedules. When a discussion with someone lasts longer than planned, they will politely stop the conversation, in order to keep their schedule.2.6 Negotiation StyleNegotiation practices differ from one culture to another and cultural difference can impact on “negotiation style” --- the way people from different cultures conduct themselves. Here, we divide negotiation style into the eastern negotiation style and the western one. China and Japan are the typical countries of the East, while America the West. Chinese culture is a high–context culture. In a high-context culture, the emphasis on communication is indirectness and ambiguity. Most of the information is in the context while little is in the explicit part of the message. The external environment, situation and non-verbal behavior are crucial in understanding communications. People depend heavily upon covert clues to interpret a message given under a certain context. And also, Chinese negotiators also look forward to long-term partnership. They are not in a hurry to push for an agreement. Generally, there is a slow start to “warm up”, and then it is followed by some tentative suggestions. In the international business negotiation, saving face and achieving harmony are more important factors than achieving higher sales and profits for Japanese. As far as the Japanese negotiators are concerned, they try to build up a long-term relationship in the course of negotiation. Therefore, they prefer personal contacts in an informal way. For them, trust is more important than agreements. The reason why there is a low ratio of success between American and Japanese negotiators lies mainly in this point. Besides, Japanese negotiators try their best to avoid an open conflict between both parties. Consequently, they often ask a third party to function as go-betweens. In this way, they can prevent an unpleasant feeling from coming up on both sides The impression Americans leave us on the negotiating table is flexibility,10

straightness and zest. They never express themselves with vague words. They say “Yes” or “No” directly. Consequently, during a negotiation they like people speaking without reservation. When any conflict appears in a negotiation, Americans aim to solve the problem and never mind if you have adequate proof and dispute with them. Meanwhile, if you want to ease up the atmosphere and respond with a smile, it will be reckoned as insincere and as if you are in the wrong way. In addition, Americans respect human rights, and they can not tolerate throwing stones at a certain person behind him. American negotiators often act in an impersonal way ---“business is business” is their view, American negotiators are always mission-driven---anxious to bring parties concerned into agreement, and they have little interest in building up any relationship. Furthermore, American negotiators like to be openly challenged for the negotiation, and they think it is quite normal if they run into any conflict with any party concerned.2.7 Decision-making ProcessDecisions are made differently in different groups. They may be made by individuals or by the group as a whole. Some groups accept the decision of the majority of the group members, but other groups seek consensus among group members and will not make a decision until all members have agreed. Knowing how your counterpart makes decisions is vital to help gauge the approach you should take to persuade him or her. Take Japan and America as typical eastern and western countries for example.American people make decisions based upon the bottom line and cold, hard facts. They believe not people, but statistics and performance count. Business is business. In American view, a business negotiation is a problem-solving activity, and the solution is a deal that suits both parties. The decision making process is just like a cost-benefit analysis applied to all parties who would be touched by the decision. A decision is considered right because it produces the greatest net benefit when all the costs and benefits to all the affected parties are taken into account. So the Americans usually list the possible effects and estimate the magnitude of their costs and benefits as accurately as possible. In general, decision-making in Japan is a communal affair requiring unanimous approval by management. In this decision-making style, everyone must be convinced, not just the key decision-maker. Upper-level managers do not make fast, on-the-spot11

decisions. Most Japanese companies use some form of a system of decision-making known as document system. In the lower layer of management, usually at the section level, a manager drafts a proposal after achieving consensus within his own group. The proposal is circulated to the heads of other sections and departments. These heads study the proposal. If they approve, they stamp their name seals on it. If they disapprove, they either refuse to stamp it or put their seals on it upside down. Then the document is passed up through the different levels of management until it reaches the president. If everyone stamps the proposal, it becomes a company policy. If not, it is usually sent back to its originator with certain suggestion. Thus all the middle managers in companies using this system perform almost all the planning functions for the company, deciding what will be done, when and how.Chapter Three Coping Strategy of Negotiating across CulturesThe culture differences in cross-cultural communication have various impacts on operation of enterprises. These differences will influence negotiation and management of transnational operation; what’s more, it may have bad effects on the harmonious relationship between our country and foreign countries. Maybe that will lead to the missing of market opportunities, the increase of trade cost and the low efficiency of company management. So, it is really necessary for us all to eliminate and avoid disadvantageous effects.3.1 Making Preparations before Negotiation.The negotiators must make good preparations if they want control the development of negotiation successfully in the complex situation. Only do they make good preparations can they make changes freely according to the situation of negotiation and avoid the happening of conflicts. Because the international business negotiation involves extensive aspects, more preparations are needed. The preparations often include the analysis of the negotiators themselves and the12

opponents; the constitution of negotiation group, elaborating the negotiating goal and strategy and going on imitation negotiation when necessary. When making preparations, you should try to know the opponents while you analyze yourselves. Analyzing yourselves mainly refers to studying if the project is feasible. To knowing about the opponents means understanding their strength such as credit status, the policy、 business customs and regulations of their countries and the conditions of their negotiating members and so on.3.2 Overcoming Cultural PrejudiceTolerating different cultures and overcoming cultural prejudice contribute to better communicating with each other and understanding each other. West people often think that they are powerful, capable and experienced, so sometimes, we need to recognize then and give then some good comments. We should learn about the foreign cultures before negotiation and accept and understand their cultures in negotiation, because every country regard their own cultures as a matter of course and hope that their culture could be recognized and accepted.3.3 Conquering Communication BarriersTwo trains running at different railways in the opposite direction will collide with each other; maybe this is the best arrangement for trains. But to communication between people, there won’t be communications if people go ahead according to their own ways. Trains will collide with each other if they run on the same railway at the opposite direction. But if we measure by the objective of people’s communication, only we meet each other, can we have communication and friendship. In negotiation, sometimes we can’t make much progress although we have talked for long time. And sometimes both parties are not satisfied. After thinking, that is caused by communication barriers which happen easily in cross-cultural negotiation. We should make sure if there appear communication barriers, if so, we must overcome them. Generally speaking, we should pay more attention to the following three13

communication barriers in cross-cultural negotiation: the communication barriers caused by culture background of both; the ones caused by misunderstanding of the contents and information from the partner; the ones caused by not being willing to accept the opponent’s contents and ideas.Chapter Four The reasons of the different cultureSince there are so many cultural differences, then conflict is inevitable.A cultural diversity have many reasons, in a word, eastern and Western cultures have different cultures, historical background, it will inevitably bring some thinking, behavior, and many other differences, even conflicts. Many factors influence the differences of cultures.4.1 Value DifferencesEvery culture has own unique value systems, this culture think that is good, another culture might consider bad, but it does not mean that this values are advanced, and the other values are behind. For example, parents in western countries tend to cultivate children to be independent. They encourage their children to deal with their personal things by themselves. Parents in eastern countries, however, always spoil their children. They always help their children finish some things which the children have the ability to cope with by themselves.4.2 Political DifferencesPolitical differences mean that policies and regulations of the political system standardize the behavior of the people’s role so that people under different political system have different political concepts. Take America and France for example: the power of American president is strictly limited by the Constitution and the other two authorities---Congress and Supreme Court. While France has to expand their president’s power due to their own conditions.14

4.3 Economic DifferencesEconomic difference is a reflection of the cultural differences due to economic factors. For example, people in the western developed countries have the rich life, and receive the high education so that they pay more attention to the quality of life, and they have good safety awareness. But in the Third World, especially the developing countries, people are more concerned with the problem of food and clothing. So this is reflected in cultural differencesChapter Five Negotiation Skills: correctly to deal with the cultural differencesAs we all know, different countries have different cultures. According to the culture of different countries adopt different strategies in the international business negotiations, in order to ensure that negotiations can be expected to achieve, decision-making must based on cultural differences, learn some international business etiquette and practices, respect each other's cultural practices, so negotiations will be guarantee successfully. Negotiational tactic is objective. Unless we understand it, we can apply it. Specifically speaking, take Chinese negotiators for example, we must achieve the following several points: First, understanding English has always being identified as a key successful factor for Chinese Business. Second, Chinese businessmen have to know the culture differences between the East and the West so that they not only can know their own negotiation’s mentality but also their rival’s mentality. In addition,Chinese businessmen should respect other parties’ customs, in equal and friendly foundation. Third, both parts should attempt to conciliate the bilateral cultural difference. Studying and respecting the foundation of adversary’s cultural difference requires both sides to exchang ideas, to stand in adversary’s angle and standpoint to think question.Chapter Six How to negotiation and to deal with cultural differences in negotiation6.1 1.Pre-negotiation15

The pre-negotiation stage begins form the first contact between the two sides whose interest in doing business with each other,we should keep an open mind to recognize and accept the difference, because information gathering will to some extent determine the success and failure of the negotiation.6.2 .Face-to-Face NegotiationIn this stage, I think negotiators should adopt some proper communication skills to reach an agreement. And we know conflict tend to be more difficult and complex when involved negotiators with cultural differences. But conflict is unavoidable during the process of negotiation. To make things worse, poor communication may kill deals. So we should try our best to overcome the cultural differences on negotiation, and utilize some effective communication to gain the common interest. In view of its significance in negotiation, communication is at the heart of the negotiating process.6.3 Post-negotiationFinally the business negotiation is brought to the end stage. The contract is being drawn up and to be signed. However, writing and wording of the contract in itself is a kind of negotiating process. For word meaning and business value might differ due to the cultural factors involved in the business negotiation, form of agreement is preferred differently from culture to culture.6.4 Cultivation of Cross-cultural AwarenessWithout both parties effort negotiations can not be achieved, so we should cultivate cross-cultural awareness to avoid some unnecessary matters. First of all, a negotiator needs to have a reflection upon his own cultural system. He needs to be aware of his own values, beliefs and social norms. He also needs to be culturally sensitive and always bear in mind that a foreign negotiator is different from natives not only in physical features, but also in motivations, beliefs and values.16

Then, show respect for the other party. Show respect for the other party will smooth the situation and speed the negotiation process. Anyhow, the result of the establishment of cultural fellowship does not mean overcoming a culture but means a third culture created by the former two (Li and Zhang, 2004). Finally, accept other’s culture. For example, we usually believe in this saying “you will be treated how you treat others”. But in the cross-cultural setting, it’s not this way. What you want to be treated is not an American want to be. Therefore, we should believe that “how they treat other is what we will do” (Acuff, 1995). Try to behave like others do may bring you inconvenience, but just try it and it’s sure that the other part will encourage and appreciate your action.Conclusion“Social Customs varies in different countries”. In a word, cross- cultural communication will meet the problem of culture differences surely. In turn, culture differences also influence all aspects of international business communication. To avoid or to resolve the culture differences is a huge task in international business negotiation. In order to step into the international market successfully, we must have the awareness of culture differences, acknowledge culture differences and understand different cultures. Try to know yourself and know them. What’s more, we should respect different behavior of businessmen under different culture background, and then we could reduce unnecessary conflicts resulting from not respecting the opponents. It is beneficial for both to form an atmosphere of mutual trust and cooperation, reduce culture differences and turn disadvantages into advantages and benefits. Thus, we could avoid conflicts and obstacles, then to promote communication and harmony in international business negotiation.17

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AppreciationAs acknowledgements for my paper, only I — the writer is responsible for the shortcomings. I much acknowledges my thanks to all my teachers, especially to Miss Liu Mifan, my supervisor, who has provides me support, critical ideas and careful suggestions. I also want to thank my family who always give me time, encouragement and secretarial services, especially my parents. Finally, my classmate and friends, who provided thoughtful and thorough reviews of my paper, must be acknowledged.19

 
 

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